Values and Their Teaching Methods in Social Studies / Abdulrahman M. AI-Shawan
The paper seeks to emphasize the importance of teaching and learning values in social studies. It offers a definition of values. classifies them and proposes methods of teaching them. To realize the objectives of this paper, the writer reviewed the available relevant literature. and offered a definition of values which are concepts or standards , explicit or implicit, used to judge desired or undesired things by society. Values as defined by the writer are intended to direct the behavior of the individual to what is desirable in his society. He distinguished between values and attitudes (trends). To him, values grow slowly, but surely, they are abstract concepts, and represent the ultimate desired goals. Attitudes on the other hand. exist, grow fast and reflect instrumental goals. The paper offers a classification of values in terms of six dimensions: dimension of content; dimension of intent; dimension of intensity; dimension of generality; dimension of explicitness; dimension of permanency. The paper further emphasizes the importance of teaching values because of their close and strong relation to the affective domain. and their impact on the desired learning outcome. Finally. the paper describes four methods of teaching values which are: value inculcation; value clarification; moral reasoning; value analysis. This description is supported by examples.